Musical Instrument is the best expression of the agricultural and biographical situation of a place. One can find similarity between the instruments of desert of Sahara of Africa and desert of Rajesthan India or Middle East.
This is a great science, which still not known to general mass. By listening the music or the instrument one can tell the geographical location of the place and other condition like nearest water point i.e. ocean, river, pond or spring. Height of the place i.e. mountain, Plane, desert etc. or the climate of the place like cold, Hot, dry or wet.
Every dance has some special type of instrument, which differentiate it from other classical or folk dances.
India has versatile territories from the height of Himalayas to the depth of the Indian Ocean, from the desert of Rajesthan to the Cherapunji, which has 99% rain through the year. With these variations India has a vide range of instruments.
Broadly instruments can be divided into 4 categories
Sushir Vadya (Air blow instruments): for example Flute, Clarinet, Saxophone, Shehnai, Harmonium etc.
Tantra Vadya (String instrument): for example Guitar, Sitar, Veena, Sarod, Ek Tara, Tanpura etc.
Gaj Vadya (Bow Instrument): for example Violin, Sarngi, Dilruba, Israj, Chelo etc.
Avnaddh Vadya or Tatt Vadya (Rhythmic instrument or instrument give sound when beaten) Drum, Tabla, Pakhawaj, Bongo, Dhol, Dhapli, Chang, Khanjari etc.
Instrument used in North Indian classical Vocal:
Instrument used in South Indian Classical Vocal:
Tanpura or Tambura
Instrument used for the accompaniment of Classical Dances:
Kathak: Tabla, Pakhawaj, Harmonium, Sarangi / Violin, Sarod, Sitar, Flute, Manjira, Ghungru
Bharatnatyam: Mridangam, violin, Tanpura, Manjira, Ghatam, Ghungru.
Kuchipudi: Mridangam, violin, Tanpura, Manjira, Ghatam, Ghungru.
Kathakali: Mridangam, violin, Tanpura, Manjira, Ghatam, Chandd, Nagswaram.
Manipuri: Khol, Mridang, Jhanjh, Manjira and Flute.
Mohiniattam: Mridangam, violin, Flute, Tanpura, Manjira, Ghatam, Ghungru
Odissi: Mridangam, violin, Tanpura, Manjira, Flute, Ghungru.